Tseba mefuta e meholo ea buckwheat

Se-buckwheat ke eng, ba tseba esita le ba sa amaneng le temo mesebetsing ea bona ea litsebi. Ha ho makatse, hobane ke semela sa bohlokoa ka ho fetisisa sa indasteri ea lijo, ho tloha ho lijo-thollo tse hlahisang lijo-thollo le phofo. Ho phaella moo, ke setsebi se setle sa lijalo tse ngata.

Vithamine PP e fumanoa makhasi le lipalesa tsa mobu, 'me litšila tse tsoang ho lihlahisoa tsa semela - phofo, joang le li-husk tsa lijo-thollo-li sebelisoa e le lijo tsa liphoofolo. Linaheng tse ka bochabela, mohoma oa setso sa lijo-thollo o sebelisetsoa ho hlahisa li-pillows. Semela, ho phaella moo, e na le bohlokoa joaloka semela sa mahe a linotsi: ho tloha ho 1 ha lijalo u ka fumana lik'hilograma tse 100 tsa mahe a linotši le ho feta.

Naha ea naha ea buckwheat ke Bochabela le Asia Boroa-bochabela. Semela sena se ile sa hlahisoa ka lijalo hoo e ka bang lilemong tse likete tse 4 tse fetileng, lithabeng tsa India le Nepal, moo e bitsoang "raese e ntšo". Ke ea lelapa la Grechishny 'me le emeloa ke mefuta e mengata, e leng bohlokoa ka ho fetisisa bakeng sa temo ke buckwheat. E arotsoe ka li-subspecies tse peli: tse ngata le tse tloaelehileng. Ntho ea bohlokoa haholo bakeng sa indasteri ea lijo ke ea tloaelehileng.

Na ua tseba? Sechaba sa Buckwheat se ne se bitsoa Seslav ha se se se li tlisetsoa Byzantium lekholong la VII la lilemo. Ho ea ka phetolelo e 'ngoe, lebitso "buckwheat" le hlahile hobane ka lilemo tse ngata setso se ne se lengoa haholo-holo ke baitlami ba Bagerike likopanong tsa matlo. Hona joale linaheng tsa Europe, buckwheat e bitsoa "koro ea beech ka lebaka la ho tšoana ha peō ea eona le linate tsa beech. Kahoo lebitso la genus ka Selatine: Fagopyrum -" bukovidny nutlet. "
Sehlooho sena se hlalosa mefuta e sa tšoaneng ea temo ea buckwheat, e tloaelehileng ka ho fetisisa ho lengoa indasteri ea lijo.

Li-diproid tse ngata tsa lipalesa

Mefuta e mengata ea diploid le ea tetraploid e fokotseha. Phapang pakeng tsa tsona ke hore li-diploid li na le li-chromosome tse 16, le li-tetraploid - tse 32.

E le ho etsa bonnete ba hore kotulo e ntle, ho sa tsotellehe maemo a leholimo le lintho tse ling tse ka thōko, e le molao, bonyane mefuta e 'meli kapa e meraro ea buckwheat e jaloa sebakeng se le seng.

Ke habohlokoa! Buckwheat e ke ke ea jaloa libakeng tseo limela tse nang le likokoana-hloko li sebelisitsoeng lijalo tse fetileng.

"Vlad"

Semela sa Buckwheat "Vlada" ke semela se emmeng sa diploid, sehlahla sa ribbed se fihlang bophahamo ba limithara tse fetang 1. Makhasi a li-triangular, a botala bo botala, a na le pubescence e fokolang, e-ea hloohong ea motsu, sessile holimo ho bakoang. Raceme, inflorescences, lipalesa tse nyenyane, palesa e pentiloeng e pinki.

Litholoana ke litereke tsa kereke, li arohane, li sootho. Phapang e ka sehloohong e na le li-stem-aligned, branching e ntle, litholoana tsa lipalesa tse butsoitseng, hammoho le ho hanyetsa ho hlahisa peo le bolulo. Ho jala ho lokela ho etsoa matsatsing a qalang, ho qoba ho lieha, hobane sena se lebisa ho lahleheloa ke lijalo tse tlang.

Sehlahisoa sa karolelano ke 16.5 c / ha, boholo bo tlalehiloeng linaheng tsa CIS - 28.1 c / ha (2007). Nako ea limela tsa semela ke matsatsi a ka bang 83. E na le litšobotsi tsa bohlokoa tsa theknoloji le tsa lijo-thollo. Lipontšo tsa esita le lijo-thollo tsa buckwheat tsa tsena tse fapa-fapaneng ke 90.4%; kotulo ea lijo-thollo - 75.6%; kernel ea lijo-thollo - 61.8%. Tatso ea porridge e hakanyetsoa ho lintlha tse 5.

"Dikul"

Mefuta e fapa-fapaneng ea "bucket" e na le litšoaneleho tsa morphological tse tšoanang le "Vlad" tse fapa-fapaneng. Mokhutsu o khutšoanyane, o fihla bophahamong ba 70-95 cm, 'mala o mofubelu o khanyang, o nang le pubescence e fokolang. Makhasi a le nyane, a mongoli-a bōpehileng joaloka pelo, a le tala, a na le pubescence e fokolang. Racemose ea Inflorescence kapa corymbose, lipalesa tse masoeu le tse pinki.

Litholoana li na le sekhahla, li arohane, li sootho. Tse sa tšoaneng - bohareng ba nako, nako ea eona e ntseng e hōla e nka matsatsi a ka bang 80. "Dikul" e nkoa e le mefuta e nang le chai e ngata. Ka karolelano ke batho ba 16.1 ka lihektheri, 'me boholo ba bona ke ba 25.8 ba lihekthere ka hektare (2003). Ho fapana le theknoloji e phahameng le ea ho ja litholoana. Lethathamo la bonyane la lijo-thollo ke 75%; lihlahisoa tsa lijo-thollo - 70%, lijo-thollo tsa kernel - 53%. Tatso ea porridge e hakanyetsoa ho lintlha tse 5.

"Pula"

Mefuta e mengata ea "pula" e nang le mefuta e sa tšoaneng e tsejoa ka ho ba teng ha brush e le 'ngoe ho e-na le corymbose, e leng ka holim'a thunya. Inflorescence e kholo, e fihla bolelele ba 7 cm, eseng lipalesa tse ngata. Limela li na le thunya e kholo e tsoetseng pele, e nang le hoo e ka bang 4-6 maqeba.

Bakeng sa li-buckwheat, ba bang ba pele-pele ba tla ba: litapole, lupins, datur. Buckwheat ka boeona e tla ba e babatsehang ka ho fetisisa bakeng sa: oats, tsoekere ea tsoekere le litapole.

Mefuta e fapa-fapaneng ke e kholo-ngata, e bohareng ba nako, 'me e hanyetsa ho lula. Nako e ntseng e hōla e nka matsatsi a 70-80. Lihlahisoa tsa lijo-thollo - 73%, liprotheine tse kenang - 16.3%. Sehlahisoa se seholo sa "pula" ea buckwheat - 27.3 c / ha (1991). Lihlahisoa tse ntle, li loketse ho kopana ka kotloloho. Sehlahisoa se phahameng ka ho fetisisa se hlahisa mobu o nonneng.

"Carmen"

Mefuta e mengata ea Buckwheat "Carmen" - moemeli e mong oa mefuta e mengata ea diploid, semela se ikemiselitseng, se lokileng. E na le lejoe le se nang mocheso oa pubescence o fokolang, o fihlang ka bophara ba lisenthimithara tse 86. Makhasi a le tala, a bōpehileng joaloka 'mala le a mabeli a sebopeho, tlhōrōng ea stem e bōpehileng joaloka motsu, sessile, ka moaparo o fokolang o fokolang le ntle le pubescence.

Matšoao a inflorescence, racemose, a teng ka nako e telele ea peduncles. Palesa ke 'mala o pinki o pentiloeng, o monyane. Litholoana ke litereke, li na le sebōpeho sa taemane, 'mala o mofubelu o motšo. Karolelano ea lihlahisoa - 17.3 c / ha; boholo bo tlalehiloeng - 24.7 c / ha (2003). Nako e ntseng e hōla e ka bang matsatsi a 79.

Lihlahisoa tsa lijo-thollo - 67,7%, kernel ea lijo-thollo - 65%, tatso ea lijo-thollo e hakanyetsoa ho lintlha tse 5. E khetholloa ka limela tse emeng, li-branching tse ntle, lipalesa le litholoana tse butsoitseng. Tsela e molemohali ea ho hloekisa - likarolo tse peli.

"Klimovka"

Li-buckwheat tse fapaneng "Klimovka" ke nako e bohareng ba nako, e sa lumellane le bolulo ebile e na le litholoana tse khōlō (lijo-thollo). Nako e ntseng e hōla e nka matsatsi a 79. Bophahamo ba bakoang ke 98 cm. Lihlahisoa tsa buckwheat tsa mefuta ena e sa tšoaneng ke holimo, palo e tloaelehileng ke batho ba 17.4 ba lihektheri ka hektare. Lintho tse ntle ka ho fetisisa tsa pele ho Klimovka ke lijalo tse thata, tsa mariha le tsa selemo le selemo.

"Safira"

Limela li na le sekhabiso se nang le sekoti se sefubeng, se fihlang bophahamo ba lisenthimithara tse fetang 75. Makhasi a lekaneng, a tala ka 'mala, ka sebopeho sa pelo e tharo, a fetoha sessile, wavy, ntle le pubescence le ho roala. Phallo ea li-racemoscence, ka nako e telele ea peduncle, lipalesa tse nyenyane, tse tšoeu-pinki.

Litholoana ke kereke ea kereke, e bōpehileng ka daemane, e sootho. Ho jala buckwheat ea tsena tse fapa-fapaneng ho lokela ho etsoa ka la pele la mashome a mabeli la May, ntle le ho lieha, hobane sena se lebisa sehlahisoa sa tahlehelo. E fapana le lipalesa tse ntle le ho butsoa ha lijo-thollo. Sredne-e tsitsitseng ho tsollela peo le bolulo.

Sapphire "ea Buckwheat" e fana ka lihlahisoa tse ntle, palo e tloaelehileng ke 22.5 c / ha; boholo ba bona ke ba limilione tse 42.6 ho hectare (2008). Nako ea limela e nka matsatsi a ka bang 86. "Sifa" ka boleng bo bolela mefuta e sa tšoaneng ea bohlokoa 'me e khetholloa ke litšoaneleho tse ntle tsa theknoloji le tsa lijo-thollo. Peō e kholo, lenane la bosiu le phahameng - 91%. Lihlahisoa tsa lijo-thollo ke 73.3%, lijo tsa lijo-thollo - 56.7%. Tatso ea porridge e hakanyetsoa ho lintlha tse 5, motsoako o na le protheine ea 14,5%.

"Darkie"

Mefuta e sa tšoaneng ea buckwheat "Darkie" e na le leqhoa le otlolohileng lehlakoreng le leng, le qetellang ka brush e le 'ngoe. Semela sena se fihla bophahamong ba lisenthimithara tse 72 ho isa ho tse 102. Makhasi a na le sekhao se le seng, a mokhutšoanyane oa pelo, a tala, a se na boka ba linotsi le pubescence.

Merabe, lutse ka maoto a malelele a 8-14 ka moqhaka. Lipalesa tsa palesa e pinki, palesa ea lijo-thollo, e hlobotseng, e bōpehileng ka taemane, mmala o motšo le chokolete. Semela se na le lihlahisoa tse tloaelehileng, ho fihlela ho 14.3 c / ha.

"Aronia"

"Black" buckwheat e bōpiloe ho tsoa mefuta e mengata "Yubileinaya-2" ka mokhoa oa khetho ka mong. Ena ke mefuta e sa tšoaneng e butsoitseng, nako ea eona e ntseng e hōla ha e na matsatsi a fetang 75. Lipalo tsa limela li telele, tse ka bang 100 cm e telele, li na le branching e ntle. Palesa e ntle, e botsoalle, lipalesa li tšoeu.

Litholoana tsa Buckwheat "Chokeberry "e bohareng ba sekhahla, e ntšo, e na le protheine ea 14 ho ea ho 17%. E na le boleng bo botle ba theknoloji le lijo-thollo, tlhahiso ea lijo-thollo e hodimo ho fihlela ho 77 %. Sehlahisoa ha se khahlanong le bolulo. libaka.

Mefuta e sa tsoaneng ea li-thakraploid buckwheat

Li-tetraploids tsa buckwheat li khetholloa ke chai e ngata, lijo-thollo tse kholo, liprotheine tse nang le litholoana tse ngata, li fokolloa ke ho tsuba le ho fokola. Nahana hore na ke mefuta efe e mengata e entsoeng ka mafura.

Alexandrina

Lihlahisoa tsa Buckwheat "Alexandrina" e na le lehare le ka hare ho bolelele ba 89 cm. Makhasi a le tala, a bōpehileng joaloka sefubelu, a bōpehileng ka metsu, a phalla ka sessile, ha a na pubescence le deposit deposits. Inflorescence ke ntho e tloaelehileng, e fumanehang ka nako e telele, lipalesa li le khōlō, pinki e penti. Litholoana li lekanngoa, tse tharo tse tharo, li sootho. Ka karolelano lihlahisoa tsa mefuta e sa tšoaneng Alexandrina ke 18.1 c / ha; e ka holimo ho 32.7 lekholong ka hektare (2004).

Nako ea limela e nka matsatsi a 87. Litšobotsi tsa theknoloji le tsa lijo-thollo li phahameng. Lihlahisoa tsa lijo-thollo - 68.2%, lijo tsa kernel - 63.7%. Ho khothalletsoa ho lengoa pele ho li-buckwheat tsa tsena tse fapa-fapaneng, ho jala nako nako e telele ho feta lilemo tse leshome tsa May. Ha u lema, ho hlokahala hore u arohane lijalo tsa diploid. Tsela e molemohali ea ho hloekisa - likarolo tse peli. E na le lipalesa tse nang le botsoalle le ho butsoa ha lijo-thollo tse ntle, ka mokhoa o itekanetseng o hanyetsang ho hlahisa lijo-thollo le bolulo.

"Bolshevik-4"

Mefuta e fapa-fapaneng "Bolshevik-4" e khetholloa ke lebelo le matla, le phahameng, le fihla ho 1 limithara. Peō e kholo ebile e phahame (91-100%), e khetholloang ke litšoaneleho tse phahameng tsa theknoloji. Pele thollo e senyeha ha e batle ho arohana hape ka likaroloana, e fanang ka chai e ngata ea lijo-thollo - ho fihlela ho 86%.

Tatso ea porridge e hakanyetsoa ho lintlha tse hlano, li-protein tse nang le litholoana li phahame haholo - 15-16%. Ka karolelano lihlahisoa - 19.1 c / ha, boholo ba - 32.2 c / ha bo ngotsoe ka 2008. "Bolshevik-4" bohareng ba selemo, nako e ntseng e hōla e nka matsatsi a 68 ho ea ho a 78. Ho fapana le ho eketseha ha ho hanyetsoa ke serame, bolulo le ho oa ha lijo-thollo.

"Elia"

Hlophisa "Elia" - semela sa mofuta o nepahetseng, o na le ntlha e sa tebang. Makhasi a na le li-triangular, a tala, a fetoha motsu o nang le sefate sa sesole se se nang bokapele le pubescence. Lihlopha tsa inflorescences, lipalesa tse kholo, leseli le pinki. Peō e kholo, e kentsoeng ka taemane, kereke e mongobo.

Sehlahisoa sa karolelano ke ba 17.1 ba lihoreng ka hektare, boholo ba tsona ke 33.2 (1997). Litholoana tsa lijo-thollo -73-74%. Semela e itekanetse ho lula le ho senya, e khetholloang ka lipalesa tse ntle le ho butsoa. Tsela e molemohali ea ho hloekisa - e arohane. Sehlahisoa se setle ka ho fetisisa ke sefateng sa loamy le mobu o bobebe, o nang le mola o pharaletseng, o nang le palo ea seeding ea lik'hilograma tse 1,2 milione / ha.

"Lena"

Li-buckwheat tse sa tšoaneng "Lena" ke semela se nang le mefuta e metle ea mofuta o nepahetseng. E na le leqhoa le sabaletseng, le fihlang bolelele ba lisenthimithara tse 95, 'mala o mofubelu o bobebe. Makhasi a tala, wavy, a pelo-a mararo, a se na pubescence. Li-inflorescences tse ngata, li-racemes, ka li-peduncles tse telele, lipalesa tse tšoeu-pinki.

Litholoana ke rhombic, tse kholo, tse tharo tse tharo, tse sootho. Mefuta e fapa-fapaneng ke nako ea bohareng ba nako; nako e ntseng e hōla e nka matsatsi a 88. Lihlahisoa tse tloaelehileng tsa lijo-thollo ke 13,8 c / ha; e ka holimo ho 25.5 lekholong ka lihekthere (2003). Lisebelisoa tsa thekenoloji le lijo-thollo li phahame, esita le lijo tsa lijo-thollo li ntle haholo - 99%. Lihlahisoa tsa lijo-thollo - 72%, lijo tsa kernel - 55%.

Tatso ea porridge e hakanyetsoa ho lintlha tse 5. Mefuta ea pele ea peo ea pele ea May e buelloa bakeng sa mefuta ena. Tsela e molemohali ea ho hloekisa - likarolo tse peli.

"Maretha"

Martha ke e mong oa baemeli ba mefuta-futa ea mofuta o mong oa litlama tsa tetraploid buckwheat. Semela se sa khaotse, se otlolohile, stem ke sekoti, se robbed, se fihla ho limithara tse 1 bophahamo. Makhasi a na le sepakapaka, a tala, a bōpehileng ka pelo, a mararoli, avy, ntle le pubescence le liaparo tsa boka. The inflorescence ke raceme, e kholo lipalesa, palesa e pentiloeng e pinki.

Litholoana ke kereke ea borena, e bōpehileng ka daemane, e mongobo. Sehlahisoa se akaretsang ke batho ba 19.1 ka lihektheri, sehlahisoa se seholo ke li-35.7 lekholong ka hektare (2008). Nako ea limela e telele ka matsatsi a 94. Mefuta e fapa-fapaneng ke ea bohlokoa, e na le litšoaneleho tse phahameng tsa theknoloji le tsa lijo.

Buckwheat hangata e hlaseloa ke tse senyang lijalo: Cockchafer, litoeba, li-wireworms le nematodes.

Lijoana li le khōlō, lekhahla le lekaneng - 97.9%, sehlahisoa sa lijo-thollo ke 72%, kernel ea lijo ke 74.8%. Tatso ea porridge e hakanyetsoa ho lintlha tse 5, karolo ea protheine ke 14%. E boetse e khothalletsoa ho jala pele ho nako, ho qoba ho lieha, e le hore se se ke sa lahleheloa ke bongata ba lijalo. Ha o ntse o lema, o lokela ho aroloa mefuteng ea li-diploid.

"Minsk"

Mefuta e fapa-fapaneng ea li-buckwheat "Minskaya" e ne e entsoe ka mokhoa oa ho khetha mefuta e mengata e hlahisoang haholo ea bana ba "Istra". Limela "Minsk" e telele, tse khetholloang ka branching e ntle. Lipalesa li khōlō, li tšoeu. Lijo-thollo tse khōlō.

Sehlahisoa se akaretsang ke 12.3 -25.4 q / ha. Semela ke nako ea bohareng ba selemo; nako ea limela e nka matsatsi a 79 ho isa ho a 90. E na le boleng bo phahameng ba theknoloji le lijo-thollo, lijo-thollo tsa lijo-thollo - 73%, liprotheine tse nang le li-protein - 16.8%. Li thunya hantle ebile li hōla, li hanela ho lula.