Likokoana-hloko tse nyane le tse kotsi tsa li-saplings: birch, litholoana le lifate tsa oak

Sebopeho sa sefate sa sefate se seng le se seng ho na le setho sa bohlokoa sa 'mele-sapwood.

E tlatsa sebaka pakeng tsa moralo oa lehong le makhapetla, ke mokhanni oa limatlafatsi le metsi ho tloha metso ho ea moqhaka le morao.

Sebakeng sena se nonneng le ho theola beetle e nyenyane ea lelapa la makhapetla a marang-sapwood.

Sapwood mefuta le libaka tsa kabo

Mefuta e 200 ea likokoana-hloko tsa weevil e kena sehlopha sa likokoana-hloko tsa lijalo tsa litholoana tsa Lefatše le ka Leboea le Amerika Boroa, le Tse 50 tsa tsona li emetsoe ho lihlopha tsa naha ka har'a naha ea rona.

Likokoana-hloko tsena "li iketsetse" lihlahisoa (liapole, pere, joalo-joalo) le limela tse hlaha tse kang mountain ash, hawthorn, cornel, deciduous le coniferous lifate.

Nako eohle ea ntshetsopele ea beetle e etsahala kahare ea bohlokoa ea sefate, ka hona mo bakela tshenyo e ke keng ea lekanngoa, ho cheka ka litemana tse ngata, ho li pata ka polase, ho senya lisele tsa cambium (ho fana ka keketseho ea lisele tsa 'mele), e leng ho bakang manonyeletso.

Bakeng sa tlhahisoleseling: Nonyana e 'ngoe ea sapwood e phunyeletsa bophelo ba eona ho fihlela lirocha tse 3 bolelele ba lisenthimithara tse 6. Tlhokomelo ea mosali e le 'ngoe ke mahe a 100. U ka inahanela tšenyo e entsoeng ke mefuta ena feela ea likokoana-hloko tsena.

Hoo e batlang e le mofuta o mong le o mong oa lehong e-na le sesepa sa hau (mono-phage), e khethang limela tsena ho netefatsa hore li teng:

  • litholoana li qhibiliha;
  • birch sap;
  • li-oak saplings;
  • almonde;
  • hornbeam, joalo-joalo.

Mefuta e meng e senola khetho ea sebaka sa ho aba:

  • Ussuri;
  • Moravitsa sapwood (Dauria, ka Leboea-Chaena).

Mefuta e fapaneng ea mefuta e fanoa ka litšobotsi tsa morphological tsa disenyi:

  • pygmy caprice;
  • wrinkled;
  • Sapman
Tse thahasellisang: Sapwood hase feela monate o ratoang haholo oa sapwood, ka tloaelo o kenyelitsoe ho lijo tsa eona ka Yakuts.

Tholoana ea Mofuta oa Tlhaloso

  1. Sapod - e lefifi oligophage beetle:
    • ho fihlela ho 4mm;
    • ka elytra e khanyang le pronolum equilateral;
    • mpa ea likarolo tse 8, ho otloloha, ho otloloha;
    • e le hlooho e nyenyane, ka tsela ea tšoantšetso, e kenngoa ka lebokoseng;
    • li-antenna tse nang le li-thickenings tse nang le mahlaseli a mabeli lipheletsong (li-club), tse tletseng moriri;
    • li-paws tse tšeletseng tse nang le leino la apical leoto le ka tlaase;
    • ka moriri o motle le sekala se koahelang 'mele oohle.
  2. Mefuta ena e khetholloa ke dimorphism ea thobalano.
  3. Mahe a tšoeu, a bōpehileng joaloka oval ho fihlela ho 1 mm ka 'ngoe. Ka ho robala mahe a 50-100.
  4. Sefuba se soeufetse, se bonolo, se nang le yellowing tinge, ho fihlela ho 5 mm; ka li-callus pads tse fanang ka eona ka ho tsamaea; motho e mong oa bohlokoa - o mosoeu;
  5. The pupa e tšoeu ka 'mala oa metamorphosis ea beetle, e lumellanang le boholo ba eona; e boima, e entsoeng ka nako e khutšoane, e nang le mapheo a ikhethileng a ipatileng maoto.
'Nete: Phoofolo e 'ngoe e bitsoang beetle, e nang le majoe a qhibilihileng, e leka ho qeta lifate tsa litholoana, haholo-holo lifate tsa lejoe. E nyenyane ka boholo (ho fihlela ho 3 mm) le mashala a mashala ntle le gloss. Lifofane tsa hae ha li batla ntlo e ncha li qala khoeli hamorao - ho tloha ka July ho ea ho August.

Photo

U ka bona kamoo sapwood e sheba setšoantšong se ka tlase:

Mehato ea ntshetsopele ea birch qeta

  1. Ponahalo ea beetle e sefate e tla fetoha lehae la eona e oa mathoasong a June - bohareng ba July.

    Birch sapwood o khetha kutu le makala a teteaneng a sefate a fokolisitsoe ka mor'a mariha kapa ka lebaka la tlōlo ea semelo sa temo ea sefate, ho itšetlehile ka bona le ho etsa likarolo tse khutšoanyane, ho fepa bacha ba banyenyane. Moo, tlas'a makhapetla, a bokane ka lihlopha, o tla lula a qeta mariha.

  2. Mosali o na le mosebetsi o mong: o lokela ho koetlisoa ka masterbatch ka ho lekanngoa le ho lekanngoa le matheba a mahlakoreng bakeng sa lihlopha.

    Ho etsa mosebetsi o boima joalo ho hloka boiteko, kahoo basali ba ntse ba le mothating oa ho lokisetsa sebaka bakeng sa bana o feptjoa ka matla ho metsi a sapwood.

  3. Manyolo a hlaha karolong e telele ea leqeba, ka mor'a moo mosali o beha mahe ka lateral fossa 'me o li tiisa ka kokoro ho tloha phofo ea polase.

    Ha li se li phethahatse morero oa tsona 'me li koale monyako o moholo le' mele oa eona, oa shoa.

  4. Ka mofuthu oa sebaka se koetsoeng, mahe a fetoha li-larvae, tse etsang likhaolo tse ncha ka litsela tse sa tšoaneng, ho ja sapwood. Mariha tlas'a makhapetla, a khaotsa ho fepa ho fihlela nakong ea selemo.
  5. Ho elella bohareng ba May, ka mor'a hore li phethe phetoho ea eona, li-larva qetellong ea thupelo li theha "sehlaha sa pupal", moo mokhoa oa thuto o etsoang teng.
  6. Libeke tse peli hamorao, beetle e ncha e tsoa pupa, e itokiselitse ho batla ntlo ea eona. Bakeng sa ho tloha, birch sapling e ka iphumana feela e phunyeletse thupelong ea thato.
Ke habohlokoa: Letšoao la pele la ho timetsoa ha sefate ka litholoana tsa sesepa ke phofo e fokolang ea ho cheka phofo e qhalang ho tloha ho tse ling tsa basali. Litholoana tsa majoe - gum e phahama haholo. Sefate se fokotseha, se fokotsa lihlahisoa, 'me, haeba se beha litholoana, se fokotseha ka boleng ba litholoana.

Mehato ea ho laola le ho thibela

Tšebeliso ea mekhoa ea tšusumetso ho beetle le bana ba eona likarolong tse fapaneng tsa ntshetsopele e khetholla mefuta e latelang ea khanyetso:

  1. Karohano - ho thibela ho ata ha sapwood.
  2. Ho ntlafatsa semelo sa temo ho ntlafatsa bophelo bo botle ba semela le ho felisa maemo a khotsofatsang ho hlahisa:
    • khetho ea varietal;
    • ho pruning ho hloeka;
    • ho nosetsa ka ho lekaneng;
    • lema phepo e nepahetseng.
    Thuso: Semela se phetseng hantle se khona ho sebetsana ka katleho le sapwood. E le hore a etse sena, o na le bokhoni ba ho tšela lik'hafere tsa lero le li-canal tse nang le li-larvae, e leng se etsang hore e qetelle e shoa.
  3. Likokoana-hloko. O bua leshano ho khahloa ke batho ba bang - likokoana-hloko (tsa lelapa la Hymenoptera) le linonyana, tseo e leng lira tsa tlhaho tsa sapwood, kapa acarifagov - li-fungus le libaktheria, tse kotsi ho mofuta ona. Li-tits le li-woodpeckers, greenfly e fofa le anteraceae (pestryak) ke bathusi ba molemo ho loantša litholoana sapwood.
  4. Lik'hemik'hale - spray libeke tse ling le tse peli tse nang le likokoanyana ("Aktar", "Vector", "Mospilan", "Confidor") kapa phosphor-organic. E le ho loantša beetle, liente tsa pyrethroids tsa maiketsetso li boetse li sebelisoa tlas'a cortex ("Decis", "Sherpa", "Fastak").

E lokela ho hopoloa hore li-larvae le li-pupa tsa makhapetla a beetle ha li mamelle ka holimo ho mocheso oa lehlabula le mahlaseli a letsatsi.

Baahi ba anngoe haholo ke ho se tšoane ha mocheso kapa mocheso nakong ea ho fofa ha maleshoane. Komello le eona e kotsi ho bona.

E itšetlehile ka tsebo ena, o ka haha ​​mokhoa oa mehato ea ho sireletsa serapeng ho se otloe ke seoa sena.